For decades, the consensus on male facial robusticity has been that it evolved due to the dietary needs of our early hominin ancestors (see a picture below of what we believe the Australopithicus Afarensis looked like). The discussed paper by David Carrier disputes this, however. We discuss the reasons for this, and the implications it has for why male beauty standards (in particular; leanness and angularity) exist.
- Carrier, David R., and Michael H. Morgan. “Protective Buttressing of the Hominin Face.” Biological Reviews 90.1 (2015): 330-346
- Morgan, Michael H., and David R. Carrier. “Protective Buttressing of the human fist and and the evolution of hominin hands.” Journal of Experimental Biology 216.2 (2013): 236-244.